Recognize the Surprise Attack
Raising a previously undisclosed issue for the purpose of catching the other side unprepared and gaining an advantage in bargaining.
The surprise attack is one of the oldest of all negotiating tactics. It was written about in Sun Tzu's classic The Art of Strategy. Sun Tzu's teachings have retained relevance through more than twenty-three centuries, guiding warriors and business professionals alike to achieve triumph over opposition. A slight nuance to the surprise attack is the Ambush, where a party arrives at bargaining with many more people than were expected.
Expect this tactic to be used as part of one of these Negotiation Strategies (competitive, collaborative, avoidance, accommodation, compromise) and in these stages of the Negotiation Process (Preparation, Exchange, Bargain, Conclude, Execution).
Negotiation Strategy: Competitive
Negotiation Stages: Bargain and Conclude
Don't Use the Surprise Attack in Collaborative Negotiations
You want the other side to come to bargaining with the right people, information and the authority to discuss creative solutions that are mutually beneficial. Why do it differently? To conduct a surprise attack or an Ambush will be seen as confrontational and the beginning of the deterioration of negotiations. Any other cooperative or collaborative things you do in negotiations will at best be received with suspicion or marginalized.
Defend Against Surprise Attack
There are preventive and defensive measures to handle a surprise attack.
There are no shortcuts to being prepared or building a relationship based on trust. Following these BNPs will minimize any risk of a surprise attack.
For reinforcement rely on BNP 11: Develop a joint agenda. If something comes up that you didn't discuss when you negotiated the agenda, remind the other side that their new item is not on the agenda both parties agreed to and will have to wait for the next session.
- Resist the temptation to discuss the new item. Even if you are a quick thinker and "good on your feet", you won't do as well as if you were prepared on the issue. Responding without preparing is exactly what the other side wants you to do; catching you unprepared, without information or analysis, is the reason that the other side conducted the surprise attack in the first place.